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No, protection system transmits the lightning to land.

No, galvanised structural steel is used. Steel coated with galvanise doesn’t corrode. Following
are the typical coating used for projects


Coating Weight

Imperial Units








SI Units








Yes, the most important precaution to be taken against earthquake is to lessen the weight of the  building. Steel buildings are 5 to 10 times lighter than reinforced concrete buildings. Steel  absorbs the earthquake energy to a great extend and saves you and your belongings.

There are no standard shapes for CFS like that of hot rolled steel. However, the most common shape MIPL used is the 89 mm and 150 mm C-stud.

Yes, fabricated loadbearing members ensure high quality for reasonable prices, shorten the  construction period, reduce the labour costs; steel is long-lasting.

Yes. TV’s, pictures, cabinets, and other fixtures can be hung from a steel framed wall using  connectors and screws. For this particular question, #10 self drilling tapping screws can be used  for hanging the LCD TV.

There are several different methods for wall anchorage depending upon the design loads and  the seismic loads. The most common methods are anchor bolts and powder actuated fasteners  (PAFs). There are design equations for anchor bolts in all light gauge specifications and codes.

There are three main design methods that are recognized internationally:

a.Allowable Stress Design (ASD)

b.Load Resistance Factored Design (LRFD)

c.Direct Strength Method

No, it doesn’t get bug-infested, doesn’t deflect, wear off or burn. Galvanized steel doesn’t  corrode.

Service holes that are punched through the webs of steel members are typically used for:

a.Electric wiring



No, it doesn’t get bug-infested, doesn’t deflect, wear off or burn. Galvanized steel doesn’t  corrode.

The life expectancy or the service life of light gauge steel components depends on many  variables such as, but not limited to:

  • Location of the steel component in the building
  • Coating thickness of the steel component
  • Function of the steel member (load bearing or non-load bearing)
  • Environmental conditions (such as temperature, humidity, weather patterns, etc.)
  • Class of exposure
  • Cladding materials
  • Quality of construction

The density depends on the grade of the steel, but 7.85 g/cm3

It depends on the project selected, however it is more cost efficient than a reinforced concrete  house which is the same size and of the same quality.

It takes 2 to 4 weeks depending on the size of the building after the subbasement concrete is  poured.

Depending on the location natural gas, LPG or air conditioner can be used. Mechanical and

electric installment pipes are mounted in the walls and ceilings on the spots that are identified  at the stage project.

Only non-load bearing walls can be changed with the approval of the engineer.

Yes, insulation materials are selected according to the climate conditions of the location of the house.

Yes, when necessary precautions to protect the steel load bearing system are taken, fireplace  and barbeque can be installed.

This question cannot be easily answered without having additional information. The amount of  steel depends on many factors such as:

  • The complexity of the structure
  • The number of rooms and walls in the building
  • The number of stories (levels)
  • The environmental conditions (wind load, snow load, seismic load, etc.)
  • The occupancy classification of the building (residential, office, commercial, etc.)
  • The steel profile, thickness, and yield strength available for the job

Once the required factors are known, the designer can look at the building and perform a quick  check to estimate the weight of the steel per square meter or foot. Some companies have  developed a rule of thumb based on their product (equipment, steel, and software). Our  software system for example, estimates that for a one story residential building the weight of  steel is approximately 18 kg/m2 and for a two story building the weight is approximately 25  kg/m2. These weights are approximate and cannot be used for estimating or designing projects.

20.How many stories can a cold-formed steel framed building up to?

3 -4 storey’s . However introducing hybrid construction (Hot and cold rolled steel) can achieve  more than 12 storey.

21.What is the maximum span a steel truss can achieve?

One of the biggest advantages of cold-formed steel is its high strength to weight ratio. This  allows manufacturers and framers to fabricate long trusses that can reach up to 25 meters.  Moreover, one should check on the transportation limitations when trusses exceed 15 meters.

It is varies with the design. We estimate the amount of material required for a particular design  and use that for our cost basis. On some designs that are common or that we have done before  and have a cost history we estimate on a square foot basis.

There are code approved plastic grommets that allow to be used. No conduit is required by the  electrical code. Your electrician or the local building inspector should be able to find it in the  later editions of the NEC (National Electric Code).

In the past few years there have been many code changes that address steel framed residential  construction. The latest editions of the major national codes (SBC, BOCA, UBC, ABC.) all have  new sections and revisions that address residential steel framing. Excalibur has never had a  house where local building officials would not approve our design.

The easiest way is to get a magnet and place it on the wall to find the exact location of each  stud.

Torch cutting is not permitted for cold-formed steel members. There are many tools available to cut the steel.

There are many sources where you can find information about the design and construction of

cold-formed steel framing. A lot of that information can be found on the web site. The following  are some recommended resources that you can check out:

Light gauges steel is much lighter than concrete. As a matter of fact light gauge steel weighs  approximately 5 psf (35 kPa) while concrete weight ranges from 30 to 70 psf (207 to 482 kPa).  Therefore, you should be able to reduce the amount of concrete used in the foundations. Your  structural or foundation engineer should be made aware of the loads acting on the concrete so  that he or she can design the foundations accordingly.

The white powder (also called white rust) is an indication that the zinc coating is performing its  intended function, to protect the steel. Zinc is a sacrificial element which means it sacrifices its  life to protect the life of the steel. When steel becomes exposed to corrosive environment the zinc starts working by covering the steel with white powder.